The woman, who had recently returned from a visit to Nigeria, has been hospitalized in Ancona and was undergoing tests in a specialist unit to establish whether she has contracted a virus which has killed more than 2,000 people since the start of the year, a spokesman for the local authorities in the central Le Marche region.
"She is presenting with symptoms that could be those of Ebola," he said.
West Africa has been hit this year with the worst outbreak of Ebola ever seen.
Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone have been the countries worst affected.
There have been eighteen confirmed cases in Nigeria to date, which have resulted in seven deaths.
Last week two people were quarantined in the northern Italian city Padua over fears they had the deadly Ebola virus. However they later tested negative for the virus.
And in August an Italian woman who was hospitalized in Turkey with suspected Ebola was cleared of the virus.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention there have been a total of 3,707 suspected and confirmed Ebola cases. There have been 2,106 confirmed cases of the virus.