Speaking at a small press gathering in Milan which also attracted media from neighbouring European countries, the 40-year-old said: "It's time to bring my career as a sportsman to an end."
Zoeggeler, a Carabiniere (policeman) by profession, is one of Italy's most successful winter sport athletes.
His Olympic medals haul includes two gold, from the 2002 and 2006 Games, a silver and three bronze.
Zoeggeler's last bronze medal came this year. Having carried the Italian flag at the opening ceremony in Sochi, he went on to become the first person in history to win six medals in the same individual competition in six consecutive Olympics.
Zoeggeler was born in the south Tirol region of northern Italy and competed in luge from an early age, going on to win the junior World Cup at the age of 14.
Added to Zoeggeler's Olympic achievements are 16 medals, including six gold, from the world championships, 10 World Cup titles and 57 victories in the competition.