Lavished with gifts from a baby food company, police said the doctors misled mothers by promoting artificial milk, according to a report in the Livorno edition of Il Tirreno.
Among those arrested were two hospital department heads. Five sales executives and the director of the food company were also arrested.
The arrests followed 26 raids across Tuscany, Lombardy, Marche and Liguria.
The gifts also included televisions, air conditioners and trips to the US, Paris and London.