Forty-six-year-old Rosa Angela Lavorgna went into anaphylactic shock following the procedure at a private clinic in the northern Italian city last week, the Milan edition of Corriere della Sera reported.
Doctors at the clinic then called for an ambulance, which took the woman to the Fatebenefratelli hospital.
The woman was admitted to the hospital's intensive care unit for a few days, during which she was in a coma. She died on Tuesday evening.
Lovorgna, who was married with a 15-year-old son, had worked as nurse for 20 years in the Urology department at Maggiore hospital in Lodi, a city south-east of Milan.
It is thought that an allergy caused her to go into anaphylactic shock.
An investigation has now been opened into her death and prosecutor Alessia Miele has ordered an autopsy.