Gabriella Cipolletta, from Mugnano di Napoli, went into hypovolemic shock after losing lots of blood during the procedure at Cardarelli Hospital, La Repubblica reported.
She discovered she was pregnant after being treated for a fungal skin infection and was reportedly ready to go through with the pregnancy, but was advised by a doctor to have the abortion, performed in the 11th week, due to the potential harm the treatment for the infection might have had on the fetus.
Franco Paradiso, the hospital's director, said an internal investigation and autopsy is underway but that the procedures appeared to have been followed correctly.
Cipolletta arrived at the hospital for the termination just a few hours earlier, accompanied by her mother and an aunt.
The health ministry said it is sending a team to the hospital to investigate.
The tragedy comes amid a scrutiny of Italy's maternity care after five women died during childbirth in the space of a week over the Christmas period.