Thousands of people dressed as ancient Romans gathered in the city's streets and squares to mark the anniversary with a parade through the capital.
Here are the best photos of the celebrations.
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A man takes on the role of Emperor Julius Caesar during the parade.
Reflections of the parade in a Roman helmet.
A man wears the traditional gladiator costume, including armour and a full-face helmet.
Roman 'soldiers' demonstrate 'The Turtle', an ancient war formation to defend themselves from enemy arrows.
The costumed men and women paraded past ancient monuments including the Colosseum.
In front of the Altare della Patria in the city centre.
Women dressed as ancient Roman vestals – priestesses who were afforded significant privileges in the empire in return for taking a vow of chastity and tending to the
A woman personifying a Roman matron or upper-class woman.
Although lots of women played the part of the vestal virgins, in reality their number was very small: between two and six at a time.
Roman soldiers standing in front of an ancient commander at Circo Massimo.
A fight is reenacted at the Circo Massimo
A man dressed as a gladiator demonstrates some ancient fighting techniques.
Round shields known as parmas were used by the Roman army.
A man dressed as a Roman centurion, a Roman army officer.
Roman centurions in front of the Colosseum. These actors are carrying full-length scutum shields, which replaced the parma.
All photos, unless otherwise stated: Alberto Pizzoli /AFP.
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Photo: Alberto Pizzoli/AFP