The man, who has been identified by rescuers only as G.G, spent two nights trapped in the Grotta della Mottera in the Cuneo province of Piedmont.
He had entered the cave as part of a group excursion with several other experienced cavers, but sustained injuries in a fall on Saturday evening which left him unable to get out by himself. He received some medical assistance while in the cave and had injuries to his back, head and shoulder according to the Quotidiano Piemontese.
The National Alpine Rescue Corps (CNSAS), which coordinated the rescue, described the route out of the cave as "extremely complex".
Another worry was the 6C temperature, and the man was given an insulated tent in order to reduce the risk of hypothermia.
Rescuers also had to use explosives to make some narrow parts of the route large enough to fit the stretcher.
Rescuers used pulleys to lift G.G out of the cave and the stretcher was carried by hand through some parts to ensure it was kept out of water running through the cave.
More than 100 members of Italy's Alpine Rescue team were involved in the effort, coming from different parts of Italy to help.
The man was finally extracted from the cave on Monday morning and taken to Cuneo's hospital by helicopter.
CNSAS said his condition was "code yellow", defined by Italian medical services as being in "urgent need of medical checks" but no danger to life.