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People across Italy have been told to stay indoors and avoid all non-essential travel since March 10th.
The rules have been repeatedly tightened by a series of emergency government decrees, and regional authorities are also enforcing their own rules on top of this.
The national lockdown and school closures are now in place until at least April 13th, though the government has said after this date rules will only be relaxed “gradually”.
Here's an overview of what the current rules are.
Don't leave home unless it's essential
People across Italy are told not to leave their homes unless for an essential reason, such as to go to work or buy food and medicine.
Movement is strictly limited, and on March 22 the government cracked down further, forbidding unnecessary travel between towns.
Travel is only allowed for “urgent, verifiable work situations and emergencies or health reasons”.
People who have tested positive for COVID-19 must not leave their homes for any reason, while anyone with a fever or respiratory symptoms are strongly encouraged to stay at home and limit social contact, including with their doctor.
Anyone who needs to go out is required to fill out a standardised form justifying their reasons for doing so, carrying it with them at all times.
Anyone found to have made a false claim on the form can face criminal charges.
When can you go outside?
You are allowed to go outside for one of the following reasons:
- An urgent, demonstrable work-related reason.
- Health reasons, for example a doctor's appointment.
- “Situations of need”, for example to buy food.
This means that you can travel to work if your employer hasn't enforced leave or put remote working in place, and you can go to a medical appointment if it has not been cancelled by the health facility.
Most businesses are closed.
The government also gave a list of the businesses that will be allowed to continue operating (available here). Any services not on the list will remain closed until at least April 13th.
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All museums and cultural venues, nightclubs, cinemas, theatres and casinos are also closed.
While supermarkets will remain open, large shopping centres and department stores must close on public holidays and the day before public holidays.
Some regional authorities have also limited supermarket opening hours further on weekends.
Outdoor exercise is limited
The Italian government recently clarified its rules on outdoor exercise after widespread confusion about whether going for a run or walk was still allowed.
The rules on this remain stricter in some regions than others, however it is possible to go for a short walk or take your dog out – as long as you stay near your home. Exactly how near depends on local authority rules.
Parks, beaches and other public areas in many towns have been closed after reports of “crowds” of people exercising outdoors.
No public gatherings
The government decree prohibits “all forms of gatherings in public places or sites open to the public”.
This includes ceremonies such as weddings and funerals – though burials and cremations are still going ahead behind closed doors.
Sporting events of all levels and disciplines are cancelled, stopping play in the top-flight Serie A football league.
Swimming pools, spas, sports halls, and ski resorts across the country are shut.
Schools and universities were already closed and that closure has now been extended until April 13th at least. All exams are cancelled.
Many schools have implemented remote lessons with teachers giving classes and checking work online.
Some regions stricter than others
The rules above are the minimum restrictions ordered by the national government: many regional governments and local mayors have put in place stricter rules within their territory, and many have done so.
In worst-hit Lombardy, for instance, as of March 23 people are no longer allowed to exercise outdoors and must limit dog walks to within 200 metres of their house.
Check the website of your local comune or region for the latest quarantine rules that apply where you are.
Masks now compulsory in some regions
Some Italian regions, including Lombardy, have introduced rules requiring people to cover their faces while shopping or even anytime they're outside. See more information on where and when you're required to wear a face mask in Italy here.
Heavy fines and prison terms
Tens of thousands of people have been charged with breaking the quarantine rules since Italy's shutdown began. Many of them face steep fines.
The Italian government has upped the maximum fine for breaking quarantine rules from €206 to €3,000 euros. Penalties are even higher in some regions under local rules – in the Lombardy region, the maximum fine for breaking quarantine rules is 5,000 euros.
Some of the most serious offenders, such as those caught out shopping or going in to work after testing positive for the virus, may face prison sentences.
Anyone found to have made a false claim on their self-certification form can also face criminal charges.
Find all The Local's coverage of the coronavirus outbreak in Italy here.