Ticket staff at the entrance reportedly warned the man that flying the drone was not allowed inside the ancient amphitheatre, a World Heritage Site. Staff then called the police when he activated it once inside, Italian media reports.
The man lost control of the device within seconds and it crashed into steps inside the monument, fortunately without causing any damage or injuries.
Police charged the man with failure to comply with the no-fly zone in force in the capital.
Last year a Chinese tourist also got into trouble with police for trying to fly a drone over the Colosseum and the Roman Forum.
Despite no-fly rules in the capital, drone videos of central Rome are regularly posted online.
Like Rome's other famous monuments, the Colosseum is more frequently a target for vandalism and graffiti by visitors.