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CRIME

EXPLAINED: What is Italy’s ‘Ndrangheta mafia?

With the Italian mafias in the media spotlight this week following the start of a 'maxi-trial' with more 350 defendants, here's a closer look at the 'Ndrangheta organised crime group.

EXPLAINED: What is Italy's 'Ndrangheta mafia?
Police and soldiers escort suspected 'Ndrangheta boss Salvatore Coluccio following his arrest in 2009. File photo: AFP

When the mafia is mentioned, many people outside Italy will immediately think of Sicily's notorious Cosa Nostra.

But Italy in fact has five major mafias, and in recent years other groups have become increasingly powerful – across Italy and beyond.

READ ALSO: 'Ndrangheta: Italy kicks off mafia 'maxi-trial' with 355 defendants

The 'Ndrangheta, rooted in the southern region of Calabria, has surpassed the more famous Cosa Nostra to become Italy's most powerful mafia group, operating across the world.

The 'maxi-trial' now taking place in the groups heartland in Calabria, which has more than 350 defendants, concerns just one 'clan' or crime family within the wider 'Ndrangheta organisation.

Inside the specially-designed courtroom in Calabria as the maxi-trial began on January 11, 2021. Photo: Gianluca Chininea/AFP

Origins

Criminologist Anna Sergi, of the University of Essex in England, says the group's name has Greek origins – the word “andranghateia” refers to a “feat
of bravery”, and “andrangatho” means “to do military actions”.

The group has only been classed as mafia under Italian law since 2010, but it dates back at least to the unification of Italy in 1861.

It came to public prominence in the 1980s and 1990s in a series of kidnappings across Italy, and affiliates are believed to have been responsible for kidnapping oil tycoon John Paul Getty's grandson.

Main activities

Judge Roberto Di Bella, who has almost 30 years of experience in the methods of the Calabrian mob, describes the 'Ndrangheta as “perhaps the most
powerful criminal organisation in the world, but certainly the most diffuse, and present on five continents”.

Its activities have expanded well beyond those typical of organised crime groups – drug trafficking, extortion, illegal waste trafficking and money
laundering – to infiltrate practically all areas of public life in Calabria, while using shell companies to invest in the legitimate economy worldwide.

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But what makes the 'Ndrangheta different from other mafia groups is its family structure – it is based on blood ties, rather than external recruitment based on merit, which makes it “very reliable, because there are few turncoats”, Di Bella told AFP.

This is one of the reasons why Colombian or Mexican drugs producers have used the 'Ndrangheta to sell in Europe.

“The enormous flow of money that comes from drugs allows the 'Ndrangheta to buy everything – businesses, restaurants – to pollute the economy not just
of Italy but of many other countries in the world,” he said.

Police in Milan display photos of suspected cocaine traffickers, some with links to the 'Ndrangheta mafia, in 2009. File photo: AFP

Scale
 
Authorities believe there are some 150 'Ndrangheta families in Calabria and at least 6,000 members and affiliates in the region. That swells to thousands more when including those worldwide, although estimates are unreliable.
 
The organised crime group generates more than 50 billion euros ($61 billion) per year, according to Gratteri, who called it the world's richest such organisation.
 
Nicola Gratteri, the leading prosecutor at the maxi-trial in Calabria, explained that the 'Ndrangheta as a network of families, each of which wield power over subordinates.

“I have to start with the idea that there's an organisation, as in a business, as in a large multinational, with a boss and then down, like a pyramid, to all the other members,” Gratteri told AFP, explaining the need for the “maxi-trial”.

The current trial focuses on just one family, the Mancuso group, and its network of associates who control the Vibo Valentia area of Calabria.

How much is it worth?

The 'Ndrangheta's true make-up and wealth are difficult to establish but authorities believe there are some 150 'Ndrangheta families in Calabria and at least 6,000 members and affiliates in the region, with thousands more worldwide.

Gratteri estimates the group generates an annual turnover of more than 50 billion euros ($61 billion) – much of it from cocaine trafficking.

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ROME

Tourist fined €450 for swim in Rome’s Trevi Fountain

With the return of tourism and scorching temperatures, Rome’s fountains are once again attracting visitors hoping to cool off with a midnight swim.

Tourist fined €450 for swim in Rome's Trevi Fountain

In the latest incident, a 26-year-old Spanish man was fined 450 euros after taking a dip in the Trevi Fountain in the early hours of Sunday morning.

Rome’s city police apprehended and fined the man after he was spotted swimming in the 18th-century monument at around 5am, according to local media reports.

READ ALSO: How to keep cool like an Ancient Roman in Italy’s summer heat

Every summer, hapless foreign visitors face fines of hundreds of euros after falling foul of Rome’s strict ban on taking a dip in public fountains – with the city mayor warning tourists that the centuries-old Baroque monuments are “not swimming pools”.

In April, two Dutch tourists also faced fines totalling over €1,000 after their own ill-advised splash in the Trevi Fountain.

The Roman landmark is one of the city’s main magnets for badly-behaved visitors, but tourists have also been fined after cooling off in the Santa Maria fountain in Trastevere, believed to be the city’s oldest. 

Since 2018, anyone caught misbehaving at Rome’s monuments can also face a temporary ‘Daspo’ ban from the area – similar to an ASBO (anti-social behaviour order) in the UK – which allows city police to restrict the movement of people they deem a threat to public order.

READ ALSO: From selfie brawls to midnight swims: Tourists behaving badly at the Trevi Fountain

But a plan to erect a one-metre-high glass and steel barrier around the Trevi fountain to protect it from unruly visitors now appears to have been abandoned after arts and heritage experts called the idea “foolish”.

Fines for swimming in the fountains have been in place since 2015, but this hasn’t stopped determined visitors from recreating scenes from La Dolce Vita and even some locals from taking a dip – – with or without their clothes.

Swimming in the wrong place is just one of the offences regularly committed by visitors, with graffiti and vandalism a common problem at many of Italy’s famous monuments.

READ ALSO: 15 strange ways to get into trouble on holiday in Italy

In Rome alone, this year tourists have made headlines for everything from breaking into the Colosseum to enjoy a drink with a view to driving a car down the Spanish Steps.

Other Italian tourism hotspots, including Florence and Venice, also have varying local rules in place aimed at curbing rowdy behaviour.

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