Five things to know about Italy’s presidential elections

Italy's parliament starts voting Monday for a new president -- a process that could take several days and, with Prime Minister Mario Draghi tipped for the job, risks destabilising the government.

Five things to know about Italy's presidential elections
Whoever wins the Presidential election gets to live in the sprawling 110,500-square-metre Quirinale Palace. Photo: Filippo Monteforte/AFP

1. Secret ballots

The president is elected for a seven-year term by an electoral college comprising 1,009 people. It is made up of members of the two chambers of parliament — 630 MPs and 321 senators — plus 58 delegates of Italy’s regions.

In the first three rounds of voting, the winner must secure at least a two-thirds majority. From the fourth round, an absolute majority is enough.

EXPLAINED: How do Italy’s presidential elections work?

Ballots are cast in secret and in person in the debating hall of the lower Chamber of Deputies, with only one round a day planned due to coronavirus rules.

With Covid-19 currently widespread in Italy, a drive-through voting station has been set up in the car park to allow those with the disease to cast their ballots from their vehicles.

2. Presidential powers

The president is head of state and upholds the constitution of Italy, which became a republic following a referendum after World War II.

Key roles include naming the prime minister and, on the latter’s advice, government ministers.

The president has the power to dissolve parliament, in consultation with the speakers, and ask it to reconsider legislation.

Arbitrating in this way becomes crucial in times of political crisis — it was outgoing President Sergio Mattarella who brought in Draghi as premier in February 2021.

The president also appoints one third of members of the constitutional court and has the right to pardon.

3. The candidates 

Anyone with Italian citizenship who is 50 or older is eligible, and with no formal candidate list the result is notoriously hard to predict. Draghi — a career economist with no political affiliation — appeared to hint at his availability in December, calling himself a “grandfather at the service of the institutions”.

Former premier Silvio Berlusconi, the 85-year-old leader of the right-wing Forza Italia party, was campaigning for the post but pulled out on Saturday.

Other potential candidates include former premiers Giuliano Amato, 83, and Paolo Gentiloni, the 67-year-old EU commissioner for the economy, and former Chamber of Deputies speaker Pier Ferdinando Casini, 66.

Many are hoping for Italy’s first female president. Current and former justice ministers, Marta Cartabia, 58, and Paola Severino, 73, respectively, are both tipped for the job, as is Senate speaker Elisabetta Casellati, 66.

4. Some surprises

The secret nature of the ballot has thrown up some surprises in the election of 12 presidents since 1948 — only one of whom, Giorgio Napolitano (2006-2015), was elected for a second term.

The role does not traditionally go to a party leader, but someone viewed as above the political fray.

READ ALSO: How much power does the Italian president actually have?

However, the favourite going into the race often comes away empty-handed.

In 2013, former premier Romano Prodi was nominated by the centre-left Democratic Party but was betrayed by some of his supporters and Napolitano won.

5. Former papal palace

The president’s formal residence is the Quirinale palace, once home to the popes and kings of Italy. Perched on the hill of the same name, the sprawling 110,500-square-metre building is one of the largest presidential palaces, surpassed only by Turkey’s.

Construction began in 1573 for the summer residence of the popes. It became their base as secular rulers, as opposed to the Vatican, which was their seat of spiritual power.

Around 30 popes resided there, from Gregory XIII to Pius IX.    

Under French rule, Napoleon ordered renovations to make it his Roman residence, but never set foot there.

The Italian royals lived there from 1870 until the declaration of the republic in 1946, when it became the residence of the head of state.

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Italy’s Draghi criticises Germany over latest energy plan

Outgoing Italian PM Mario Draghi condemned Germany’s €200-billion energy-prices shield, saying EU ‘must act together’.

Italy's Draghi criticises Germany over latest energy plan

Outgoing Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi and his likely successor have criticised Germany’s 200-billion move to shield its citizens from rising energy prices, saying Europe must act together to tackle the energy crisis.

“Faced with the common threats of our times, we cannot divide ourselves according to the amount of room in our national budgets,” Draghi said in a press release on Thursday.

READ ALSO: Electricity bills in Italy to rise by 59 percent, warns power regulator

The statement came after Germany introduced a 200-billion ($194-billion) shield to protect households and businesses from soaring energy prices, 

The measure was Germany’s move in what the country’s Finance Minister Christian Lindner described as an “energy war over prosperity and freedom” with Russia.

“The energy crisis requires a response from Europe to reduce costs for families and businesses, to limit exceptional gains made by producers and importers, […] and to keep Europe united once against in the face of an emergency,” Draghi said, commenting on Germany’s move.

At a meeting of EU energy ministers in Brussels on Friday, Italy’s Roberto Cingolani reiterated Rome’s support for an EU-wide cap on the price of gas – something Draghi has long been calling for.

“Everyone has recognised that there is a priority at the moment, which is to bring down the cost of gas. But there is also a second priority, [that is] to avoid creating a shortage of gas in doing so,” Cingolani said.

READ ALSO: Portofino mayor offers residents €400 to offset energy bills

Draghi will only be in office for a few more weeks, after which he will likely be replaced by Giorgia Meloni, whose far-right Brothers of Italy party triumphed at last Sunday’s elections.

Like Draghi, Meloni has backed the idea of a European price cap thus far. 

Ahead of Friday’s energy meeting in Brussels, the soon-to-be new Italian PM also appeared to criticise Germany as she called for “an immediate European response” to the energy crisis.

“No member state can offer effective and long-term solutions on its own in the absence of a common strategy, not even those that appear less financially vulnerable,” she added.