The fleet of 240 electric scooters will be available for tourists and locals alike to use, with plans to increase the number next year.
Rome transport councillor Linda Meleo announced the scheme on Thursday, saying the scooters were "simple, comfortable, and sustainable" to use.
The colourful vehicles run at zero emissions and are part of the council's efforts to make the capital more eco-friendly and improve transport options.
To rent one of the scooters, users have to download the eCooltra app and set up a profile. Then they will be able to locate the nearest available vehicle, book it, and start driving at a cost of 24 cents per minute.
The city council will be hoping the project fares better than Rome's ill-fated bike-sharing scheme, which never really took off due to a combination of the hilly capital's geography, thieves, and bureaucracy.
Rome introduced the project in 2008, a year after the launch of Paris's popular Velib' programme, but it closed in 2010 after a series of problems.
The council introduced a new batch of bikes last year, but the majority were stolen in the first months of the programme, according to the Repubblica daily.
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Photo: Michael Pollak/Flickr