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The words and phrases you need to know to decipher Italian restaurant menus

Italian might be known as the language of love but - far more importantly - it's also the language of food.

The words and phrases you need to know to decipher Italian restaurant menus
Restaurants in Italy are open once more. Photo: Tiziana Fabi/AFP

And if you're looking for an authentic Italian foodie experience, your best bet is to steer clear of chequered tablecloths, ostentatious signage, and menus with English translations or pictures.

READ ALSO: 12 of the most useful Italian words you need to know

That might be a daunting prospect, particularly as Italians have plenty of unwritten rules when it comes to food, but with our guide you should be able to navigate restaurant menus with ease.

Ristorante, trattoria, osteria | Restaurant

In your dictionary, these terms might all share an English translation, but there's an important difference. A ristorante is the most formal and upmarket of the three with waiter service, while a trattoria is less formal, usually family-run and slightly cheaper, and an osteria – or hostaria or taverna – is the budget option.

Osterias were once local watering holes: they served only wine and you'd bring along your own food. This is still the case in a very few places, such as the historic Osteria del Sole in Bologna, but nowadays most will offer a pared-down menu made up of local specialties.

Photo: Alberto Pizzoli/AFP

The distinction between eateries is becoming less important, with many osterie shifting upmarket on the one hand and ristoranti calling themselves 'trattorie' to seem cosier on the other.

Meanwhile, if a drink is all you're after, head to an enoteca (wine bar) or birreria (pub), which will often serve small appetizers too.  

READ ALSO: Italy's worst tourist scams and how to avoid them

Photo: bekassine/Flickr

Tavola calda | Buffet-style cafeteria

Literally translating as 'hot table', a 'tavola calda' is a cafeteria or takeout place – but not as you know it. 

It's a great way of getting a good lunch without spending too much: there's a selection of hot food, usually kept in dishes behind a counter, almost always prepared that day and reheated to order. There's usually a selection of several warm pasta or meat dishes, as well as salads and possibly pizza and pastries too. 

Bar, caffè | Cafe

Confusingly, these are more or less the same thing and sometimes you'll see them called a 'caffè bar'. Often, they will stay open late, serving alcohol and/or aperitivo in the evening, but unlike bars in the English-speaking world, by day they're the go-to place for your coffee and 'brioche' (pastry). 

Photo: Andrea Pattaro/AFP

The ordering system is usually different here compared to places which serve sit-down meals. After eating in a trattoria or ristorante, you'll have to call a waiter over to ask for the bill, as it's considered rude to interrupt your meal – even if you finished a while ago.

However, in an Italian cafe you'll usually pay first, and it's often a confusing two-step procedure where you'll order first and get a receipt, which you then take to the till to pay and receive your food.

Pizzeria (al taglio) | Pizzeria (by the slice)

At a pizzeria, you'll sit down and have a full pizza, while at shops serving pizza al taglio you can pick up a slice for just a couple of euros.

It's worth noting that while pizzerie al taglio might be commonplace, takeaway food is much less popular in Italy than elsewhere. In particular, some visitors may be surprised to find that not all cafes offer takeaway cups, so make sure to ask if you can get a caffè da asporto (coffee to go).

Photo: Dimitris Kamaras/Flickr

Menu a prezzo fisso | Fixed price menu

If the prospect of deciphering the entire menu seems far too complex, a set menu could be the saving grace.

Here you pay a certain price for one of a limited range of dishes, and a drink or coffee is often included (note: it will be an espresso, as Italians drink milky coffees for breakfast rather than after meals).

It's an option worth considering if you're a less adventurous eater, since the set menus typically include simple, popular dishes such as pasta with ragu or pesto. However, proceed with caution, particularly if the alternative wording 'menu turistico' (tourist menu) is used – sometimes these menus are a way of overcharging confused visitors for mediocre food.

Primo/secondo | Main course

The difference between Italian primo and secondo is not the same as English first and second course. 'Primo' dishes include pasta, risotto, broth, while the secondo is usually a type of meat dish, and may be further divided into 'mare' (sea, denoting seafood) and 'terra' (earth, denoting all other meats and vegetarian dishes). Another term indicating fish is 'alla pescatora' (fishermen's style).

READ MORE: How to decipher Italy's mind-boggling pasta menus

Photo: Randy OHC/Flickr

Be aware that secondi are often served alone, without any vegetables or other sides, so if you want an accompaniment order something from the 'contorni' (sides) section too. You can order both a primo and secondo, but it's also perfectly acceptable to choose one – and this is the norm if you're planning to have an antipasto (starter), contorno, or dolce (dessert) as well.

Al tavolo, al bar | At the table, at the bar/counter

Usually found on the menus at bars and caffes, these terms refer to two different prices, depending on whether you have your coffee and pastry while standing at the counter or sitting at a table, with a surcharge for the latter.

This is a common grumble among tourists who consider it deceptive, but it's the same logic as charging less for takeaway. Just make sure to watch out for those tourist traps which multiply the amount by a huge amount for the pleasure of a table seat – normally, the price difference shouldn't be more than around 50 cents per item.

Photo: Andrea Pattaro/AFP

Coperto | Service/cover charge

Another thing that often catches out first-time visitors is the cover charge, usually mentioned in small font at the bottom of a menu. This includes service as well as the bread (pane) or breadsticks (grissini) that usually arrive at the table.

Note that the price mentioned is usually per person, and is typically between €1 and €2 each – though restaurants in touristy areas might try to make extra money off visitors by hiking up the cover charge.

READ ALSO: The bizarre Italian food rules foreigners fall foul of

Photo: Jorge Franganillo/Flickr

Because of the ubiquity of the coperto, it's not obligatory to tip in Italy, but if you particularly enjoyed the experience you could add ten percent to the bill, or simply tell the waiter 'tenga il resto' (keep the change).

Surgelati | Frozen

In Italy, it's illegal to serve frozen food without informing customers with a disclaimer on the menu. This is typically done in one of two ways.

Some eateries will attach an asterisk to certain dishes, with an explanation at the bottom: 'Prodotti surgelati'. Alternatively, at the end of long menus, you might come across a phrase along the lines of 'alcuni prodotti potrebbero essere surgelati' (some products may be frozen), which usually means that whether dishes are frozen or fresh depends on the season. You can always ask your waiter to clarify.

Di nostra produzione | Made by us

On the other hand, if you see any dishes marked with this description, it's a sign they'll be fresh. They might also be described as 'fatto/a/i/e' in casa' (homemade).

Photo: Marco Bertorello/AFP

The traditional advice for choosing a great Italian restaurant is to go for one which only has a short menu – if there are too many meals on the list, it's unlikely they'll all be done well. However, these days it's common for chefs to bulk up their menus with frozen crowd-pleasers to cater for tourists, while still devoting special attention to their signature dishes, so this is the phrase to look out for.

Buon appetito!

This article was first published in 2017.


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Antipasto to amaro: What to expect from every step of an Italian dinner

Whether you're going out to dinner in Italy or have been invited to over to a friend or extended family member's home, here's what to expect from an Italian meal.

Antipasto to amaro: What to expect from every step of an Italian dinner

More humble and less fussy than French cuisine, Italy’s cucina povera (literally, ‘kitchen of the poor’) tradition employs minimal ingredients, prioritising fresh local produce over complex techniques.

But while it might not be as elaborate and formal as its Gallic counterpart, an Italian dinner is still traditionally a multi-course affair, often stretching over several leisurely hours and involving various stages.

If you’re invited into an Italian home for lunch or dinner, you’re likely to find it a fairly relaxed occasion that may include all or just some of the courses listed below – though you can expect it to be lengthy and copious.

As in many other countries, it’s polite in Italy to bring a bottle of wine or dessert to dinner in someone’s house; if in doubt, ask what your hosts would like.

Without further ado, here’s what you can expect from a full Italian dinner.


The antipasto (‘before-meal’) is the starter course.

Its remit is pretty broad, and might include anything from bruschetta to salad to a cheese or meat platter. If you’re in someone’s home, you might be served olives or savoury snacks such as taralli.

While you’ve probably heard of the tradition of the pre-dinner aperitivo drink and snack, this is separate from the dinner itself, and usually takes place in bars or cafes rather than in restaurants or homes.

READ ALSO: Reader question: What time do people eat dinner in Italy?

Primo piatto

A primo is a carb-based dish: almost always pasta, though it could also be risotto, gnocchi or polenta.

In line with the cucina povera, which describes the make-do cooking of poverty-stricken rural Italy in decades gone by, this dish serves to fill the diner up before moving on to a smaller (more expensive) protein course.

Because of this, while you might find small amounts of meat or fish in Italian primi in the form of guanciale in your carbonara or minced beef in your ragù sauce, you won’t be served large quantities of meat with your primo.

Polpette, or meatballs, are a separate second course, and you’ll never come across a chicken-based pasta dish in Italy.

READ ALSO: OPINION: Why do Italians get so angry if you mess with classic recipes?

Secondo piatto

The secondo is, as its name suggests, your second main dish – usually meat or fish, though most restaurants will offer at least one vegetarian option in the form of something like an aubergine parmigiana.

If you want to round it out, you can order one or more contorni – side plates of salad or vegetables.

Italian restaurants will provide both primo and secondo options, but these days most places won’t expect you to order both, and it’s fine for one person to order a primo and the other a secondo to arrive at the same time.


Once the secondo is over, it’s time for dessert.

The type of dolce you’re offered will likely vary depending on region, but the list commonly includes cantucci biscuits to be dipped in vin santo dessert wine, panna cotta, a crostata tart, and, of course, tiramisù.

If you’ve got a hankering for gelato, you’re probably best off heading out to one of the many gelaterie that populate the piazzas and streets Italian towns, where you’ll have access to a wide range of flavours.

READ ALSO: The must-try foods from every region of Italy


Next comes the caffè, which in Italy is an espresso – definitely not a cappuccino or caffè latte, which are strictly breakfast drinks, though you might get away with asking for a splash of milk and making yours a caffè macchiato.

It might seem unwise to consume caffeine at the end of the evening, but you can always order a caffè decaffeinato (usually shortened to deca), and its effects are at any rate tempered by what follows:


At the very end of the night, you’ll likely be offered a bitter amaro liqueur or some other spirit-based digestivo (some restaurants will bring these for free along with the bill).

This could also be a distilled liquor grappa, or if you’re further south, a sweet limoncello.

Taken straight after or along with your coffee, these after-dinner drinks are known in Italy as an ammazzacaffè – literally, a coffee-killer, for its dampening effect on the caffeine.

Congratulations, you’ve made it to the end of an Italian meal! Now you just have to roll yourself off your chair or sofa and make your way home, where you’ll spend a good portion of the following day digesting your meal.