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CULTURE

It’s Rome’s birthday: 17 facts about the Eternal City

On April 21st in 753 BC, the legend goes, Rome was first founded. On its 2771st birthday, we look at some of the most weird and wonderful facts about what is often called the Eternal City.

It's Rome's birthday: 17 facts about the Eternal City
The she-wolf is the symbol of Rome. Vincenzo Pinto/AFP

1. The story of how it was founded is embroiled in myths and legends. Archaeologists have found settlements dating back to the 750s BC – but how did they get there? Legend states that two brothers, Romulus and Remus, were arguing over what to name their newly-found city. To settle the argument, Romulus killed his brother, and named the settlement after himself.

2. The city is home to 2,874,605 people, making it the most populous in Italy and fourth most populous in the EU.

3. But for centuries, it was Europe’s largest city, reaching one million residents first and not overtaken until the 19th century, when London took its crown.

4. Rome is the most photographed city in Europe and the second most photographed in the world, after New York.

5. It only became Italy’s capital in 1870, snatching the title from Florence. Before that, Turin had been the capital.

6. Wondering why you see the letters SPQR all over Rome’s monuments and buildings? They stand for the Latin phrase “Senatus Populusque Romanus.” meaning “The senate and people of Rome”

Photo: Marco Zak / Flickr

7. Its total area is 1,285 km², including more parks, gardens and green spaces than almost any other European city.

8. Rome was home to the world’s first shopping mall, built by Emperor Trajan. That's if you believe the original theory about Trajan's Market – the remains of which you can still see today – that it was home to arcades of shops. Another, less exciting theory goes that they were simply administrative offices.

9. Today in Italy you can be fined thousands of euros for peeing on a street but in Rome, during the Vespasiano age, you would have been taxed on your urine. Clay pots were put out in public to collect the liquid, which could be used for washing clothes, tanning leather, and even brushing teeth.

10. Rome's most-visited tourist sites are the Colosseum and the Vatican Museums, which each let more than 4 million tourists through their doors each year.

11. Gladiators' blood was a hot commodity: ancient writings reveal it was used as a 'health drink' in ancient Rome and thought to cure epilepsy and aid fertility.

12. Rome's main university, La Sapienza, is the largest in Europe in terms of enrollment numbers. Founded in 1303, it's also one of Europe's oldest.

13. Remember Romulus and Remus, the city's founders? Some people believe they were raised by a she-wolf, an animal which is still the symbol of the city.

14. Each year, around 3000 coins are thrown into the Trevi Fountain, one of the city's most iconic landmarks. The money is all given to charity.

15. Speaking of fountains, Rome has more than any other city worldwide: over 2000, in fact. Fifty of these are classed as 'monumental fountains'.

16. A special law allows any cat in Rome to live undisturbed in its birthplace. This means you'll see plenty of wild cats roaming the ancient ruins, as well as the dozens that live in the Torre Argentina cat sanctuary among the ruins in the city centre.

17. Through history, Rome has had plenty of 'twin cities' but for over 60 years, it has been exclusively twinned with Paris, France alone, with the slogan of the partnership saying: Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris.

Photo: Headzsquare / Flickr

This article was first published in April 2017 and updated in April 2018.

 

CULTURE

Why Italy’s All Saints and All Souls days have nothing to do with Halloween

Spooky traditions haven’t really caught on in Italy where strong Catholic beliefs mean the country has its own way of honoring the dead, says Silvia Marchetti.

Why Italy’s All Saints and All Souls days have nothing to do with Halloween

Many Italians gathered last night to celebrate Halloween dressed as ghosts, witches, skeletons and zombies. Hotels, restaurants and pubs organised Halloween-themed events with spooky decor and music.

Each year I’m shocked by how Halloween penetrates Italian culture even though it’s a foreign import from Anglo-Saxon countries.

The real Italian festivities this week are All Saints’ Day (Ognissanti) celebrated on November 1st to remember all saints and martyrs during Christian history, and Il Giorno dei Morti o dei Defunti on November 2nd (the Day of the Dead, known elsewhere as All Souls’ Day) to commemorate the beloved deceased ones, mainly family members but also close friends.

While November 1st is a public holiday (and many Italians exploit it as an excuse for a ponte, a long weekend), November 2nd is a working day.

The entire week preceding All Saints’ Day sees cars queuing up to go to the cemetery, people rush to bring flowers and a few prayers to the tombs of deceased loved ones, and streets are often jammed.

For many Catholic Italians, it’s actually the only time of the year they remember to honor their dead, as if ‘imposed’ by their religion. A bit like going to mass on Sundays; if they fail to do so, they might feel guilty or even fear punishment from above. 

After spending an hour or so at the graveyards – places Italians usually tend to avoid – on All Saints Day, after the spiritual duties are accomplished, they might gather for lunch, bringing cakes and pastries.

People in Italy bring flowers to their loved ones’ graves on All Saints’ Day. Photo: JORGE GUERRERO / AFP

In some southern regions so-called ossa di morto (bones of the dead) pumpkin-filled biscuits and raisin pan dei morti (bread of the dead) are bought, while in the north chestnut pies are baked. 

Ognissanti is a very private event that usually involves little or restricted get-togethers, brothers and close relatives share the graveyard trip but then each goes back home, with little feasting on fine food. 

Catholics don’t have any macabre ritual involving leaving an empty place at the table for a spirit to join us. It is a moment of sadness but also of joy because our dead loved ones have ascended to heaven and are all there waiting for us. It’s the celebration of love, rebirth over doom, and the promise of a future reunion with them in heaven. 

That is why November 1st and November 2nd in Italy really have nothing to do with Halloween, which I call the ‘culture of the grave’ and the celebration of ‘scary death as an end to itself’. 

Even though they may partake in Halloween as a mere consumeristic party, Italians are mainly Catholic and believers do not believe in the darkness of the night, in the damnation of the grave, in being haunted by wicked spirits who long to take vengeance on us, in witches flying on broomsticks and terrifying zombies coming out of tombs. 

Pumpkin is something we occasionally eat as a pasta filling; it’s certainly not a decorative spooky element.

Halloween, which in my view is imbued with paganism and the Protestant belief in an evil superior being and naughty spirits ready to strike down on sinners instead of forgiving them, is celebrated in Italy but lacks a religious or spiritual nature. It’s like the Chinese celebrating Christmas for the sake of buying gifts and acting western. 

Halloween deeply affected my childhood. I’m Roman Catholic and I attended Anglo-American schools abroad where Catholics were a minority and each year I drove my mom crazy by forcing her to sew me a ghost or witch dress. She’d take a bed blanket and cut open three holes for the eyes and nose, annoyed that I should be influenced by a celebration that was not part of my tradition. 

In elementary and middle school my foreign teachers would make us decorate classrooms with spooky drawings, bake skeleton-themed biscuits for trick-or-treating, and tell us ghost stories in the dark to create an eerie vibe. 

Once we were also taken to visit a cemetery and when I told my dad about it he got annoyed and did all sorts of superstitious gestures to ward off evil. 

Halloween has always freaked me out but I did not want to miss out on the ‘fun’ for fear of being looked down upon by other kids. And so I too started believing in vampires, zombies, and ghosts, particularly at night when I was alone in my bed and had to turn on the light. Still today, and I am much, much older, I have a recurring nightmare of an ugly evil witch who torments me and chases me up the staircase.

I soon learned that if for Anglo-Saxons a trip to the graveyard is a jolly event, like a stroll in the park, and ‘graveyard tourism’ is on the rise, for Catholic Italians it is a place accessible only during funerals, moments of prayer, or during the week of All Saints and All Souls days. 

Last time I visited Ireland the guide took us to a monumental graveyard with tombs as high as cars, and lavishly decorated. A few of my Italian male friends refused to enter and spent the whole day scratching their genitals to ward off jinx.

Halloween night is said to be when the barrier between the worlds of ghosts and humans comes down. But Italians don’t usually like to ‘party’ and mingle with the dead or other spirits. We instead honor the deceased with our prayers but the boundary remains firm in place: in fact, this is why our graveyards are placed outside of city centres. 

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